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human milk polysaccharide
Human milk polysaccharide (HMPs) are multifunctional glycans which are natural constituents of human milk, and are the third most abundant solid component after lactose and lipids. They are a structurally and biologically diverse group of complex indigestible sugars. HMOs are made of five basic monosaccharides: glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), N-ethylglucosamine (GlcNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sialic acid (SA). Almost all HMOs contain lactose (Gal-B1, 4-Glc) at the reducing end, which can be extended with lacto-N-biose I (Gal-b1, 3GlcNAc) or lactosamine (Gal-b1, 4-GlcNAc). They act as prebiotics through the promotion of growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. Thus leading to the generation of short-chain fatty acids which are vital for a healthy gut. They are also known to directly modulate host-epithelial immune responses and can reduce binding of pathogenic bacteria and viruses to the gut epithelium selectivley thereby preventing the emergence of a disease.

Smilowitz, J. T., Lebrilla, C. B., Mills, D. A., German, J. B., & Freeman, S. L. (2014). Breast milk oligosaccharides: structure-function relationships in the neonate. Annual review of nutrition, 34, 143–169. Click here to redirect detail information.
Wiciński, M., Sawicka, E., Gębalski, J., Kubiak, K., & Malinowski, B. (2020). Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Health Benefits, Potential Applications in Infant Formulas, and Pharmacology. Nutrients, 12(1), 266. Click here to redirect detail information.
Walsh, C., Lane, J. A., van Sinderen, D., & Hickey, R. M. (2020). Human milk oligosaccharides: Shaping the infant gut microbiota and supporting health. Journal of functional foods, 72, 104074. Click here to redirect detail information.

CAZyme Gene Cluster:
Substrate Genome_ID CGC_ID CGC_Content Species Name
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000000193 MGYG000000193_41|CGC1
KLE1615 sp900066985
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000000213 MGYG000000213_49|CGC1
Blautia_A sp003477525
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000000223 MGYG000000223_1|CGC4
NSJ-61 sp003433845
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000000240 MGYG000000240_6|CGC1
Amedibacterium intestinale
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000000453 MGYG000000453_1|CGC5
Eubacterium_R sp900539775
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000000775 MGYG000000775_4|CGC1
Bifidobacterium sp900551485
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000001356 MGYG000001356_1|CGC4
Lawsonibacter sp000177015
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000002286 MGYG000002286_4|CGC5
Blautia stercoris
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000002288 MGYG000002288_8|CGC1
Bacillus_A luti
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000002473 MGYG000002473_104|CGC1
Victivallis vadensis
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000003069 MGYG000003069_5|CGC1
Bifidobacterium gallinarum
human milk polysaccharide MGYG000004099 MGYG000004099_5|CGC3
Eubacterium_R sp000433975

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