23976882, PLoS Biol. 2013;11(8):e1001637. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001637. Epub 2013 Aug 20.
30674645, mSphere. 2019 Jan 23;4(1):e00554-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00554-18.

Characterization method


Genomic accession number


Nucelotide position range







Bacteroides cellulosilyticus/246787

Degradation or Biosynthesis


Gene Name

Locus Tag

Protein ID

Gene Position

GenBank Contig Range

EC Number

xynA BcellWH2_04323 ALJ61540.1 0 - 2319 (-) CP012801.1:5620956-5623275
- BcellWH2_04324 ALJ61541.1 2351 - 3755 (-) CP012801.1:5623307-5624711 -
- BcellWH2_04325 ALJ61542.1 3770 - 5459 (-) CP012801.1:5624726-5626415 -
- BcellWH2_04326 ALJ61543.1 5482 - 8635 (-) CP012801.1:5626438-5629591 -
tmoS_24 BcellWH2_04327 ALJ61544.1 9242 - 13346 (+) CP012801.1:5630198-5634302

Cluster number


Gene name

Gene position

Gene type

Found by CGCFinder?

xynA 1 - 2319 (-) CAZyme: GH10|CBM4|CBM22 Yes
- 2352 - 3755 (-) other Yes
- 3771 - 5459 (-) other Yes
- 5483 - 8635 (-) TC: gnl|TC-DB|Q45780|1.B.14.6.1 Yes
tmoS_24 9243 - 13346 (+) TF: DBD-Pfam|HTH_AraC,DBD-Pfam|HTH_AraC,DBD-Pfam|HTH_AraC,DBD-SUPERFAMILY|0036286,DBD-SUPERFAMILY|0035607,DBD-SUPERFAMILY|0035607 No




23976882, PLoS Biol. 2013;11(8):e1001637. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001637. Epub 2013 Aug 20.


Effects of diet on resource utilization by a model human gut microbiota containing Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, a symbiont with an extensive glycobiome.


McNulty NP, Wu M, Erickson AR, Pan C, Erickson BK, Martens EC, Pudlo NA, Muegge BD, Henrissat B, Hettich RL, Gordon JI


The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ, yet little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an artificial microbiota comprising 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species and fed oscillating diets of disparate composition. Rapid, reproducible, and reversible changes in the structure of this assemblage were observed. Time-series microbial RNA-Seq analyses revealed staggered functional responses to diet shifts throughout the assemblage that were heavily focused on carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. High-resolution shotgun metaproteomics confirmed many of these responses at a protein level. One member, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, proved exceptionally fit regardless of diet. Its genome encoded more carbohydrate active enzymes than any previously sequenced member of the Bacteroidetes. Transcriptional profiling indicated that B. cellulosilyticus WH2 is an adaptive forager that tailors its versatile carbohydrate utilization strategy to available dietary polysaccharides, with a strong emphasis on plant-derived xylans abundant in dietary staples like cereal grains. Two highly expressed, diet-specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) in B. cellulosilyticus WH2 were identified, one with characteristics of xylan utilization systems. Introduction of a B. cellulosilyticus WH2 library comprising >90,000 isogenic transposon mutants into gnotobiotic mice, along with the other artificial community members, confirmed that these loci represent critical diet-specific fitness determinants. Carbohydrates that trigger dramatic increases in expression of these two loci and many of the organism's 111 other predicted PULs were identified by RNA-Seq during in vitro growth on 31 distinct carbohydrate substrates, allowing us to better interpret in vivo RNA-Seq and proteomics data. These results offer insight into how gut microbes adapt to dietary perturbations at both a community level and from the perspective of a well-adapted symbiont with exceptional saccharolytic capabilities, and illustrate the value of artificial communities.


30674645, mSphere. 2019 Jan 23;4(1):e00554-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00554-18.


Wood-Derived Dietary Fibers Promote Beneficial Human Gut Microbiota.


La Rosa SL, Kachrimanidou V, Buffetto F, Pope PB, Pudlo NA, Martens EC, Rastall RA, Gibson GR, Westereng B


Woody biomass is a sustainable and virtually unlimited source of hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The predominant hemicelluloses in softwood and hardwood are galactoglucomannan (GGM) and arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX), respectively. Based on the structure similarity with common dietary fibers, GGM and AGX may be postulated to have prebiotic properties, conferring a health benefit on the host through specific modulation of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the prebiotic potential of acetylated GGM (AcGGM) and highly acetylated AGX (AcAGX) obtained from Norwegian lignocellulosic feedstocks in vitro In pure culture, both substrates selectively promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides species in a manner consistent with the presence of genetic loci for the utilization of beta-manno-oligosaccharides/beta-mannans and xylo-oligosaccharides/xylans. The prebiotic potential of AcGGM and AcAGX was further assessed in a pH-controlled batch culture fermentation system inoculated with healthy adult human feces. Results were compared with those obtained with a commercial fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) mixture. Similarly to FOS, both substrates significantly increased (P < 0.05) the Bifidobacterium population. Other bacterial groups enumerated were unaffected with the exception of an increase in the growth of members of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and clostridial cluster IX (P < 0.05). Compared to the other substrates, AcGGM promoted butyrogenic fermentation whereas AcAGX was more propiogenic. Although further in vivo confirmation is necessary, these results demonstrate that both AcGGM and AcAGX from lignocellulosic feedstocks can be used to direct the promotion of beneficial bacteria, thus exhibiting a promising prebiotic ability to improve or restore gut health.IMPORTANCE The architecture of the gut bacterial ecosystem has a profound effect on the physiology and well-being of the host. Modulation of the gut microbiota and the intestinal microenvironment via administration of prebiotics represents a valuable strategy to promote host health. This work provides insights into the ability of two novel wood-derived preparations, AcGGM and AcAGX, to influence human gut microbiota composition and activity. These compounds were selectively fermented by commensal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides-Prevotella, F. prausnitzii, and clostridial cluster IX spp. This promoted the microbial synthesis of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which are bene fi cial to the microbial ecosystem and host colonic epithelial cells. Thus, our results demonstrate potential prebiotic properties for both AcGGM and AcAGX from lignocellulosic feedstocks. These findings represent pivotal requirements for rationally designing intervention strategies based on the dietary supplementation of AcGGM and AcAGX to improve or restore gut health.