Browse anti-prokaryotic immune system families by Defense system

AD families AD genes Defense system CLAN ID Phages/MGEs References Description
APIS011 gp4.5 toxin-antitoxin (TA) CLAN023 T7 of E. coli PMID:23478446 Protein gp4.5 allows T7 to block Lon (protease) from degrading antitoxins (the SanTA system in E. coli), including SanaA, thereby preventing liberation of SanaT. However, beyond a possible interaction between gp4.5 and Lon in uninfected cells, this speculative model remains untested.
APIS012 tifA toxin-antitoxin (TA) CLAN022 T4 of E. coli PMID:35924892 Original gene 61.4, experimentally evolved T4 phage to overcome a phage-defensive toxin-antitoxin system (toxIN) in E. coli. Through recombination, T4 rapidly acquires segmental amplifications of a previously uncharacterized gene, now named tifA, encoding an inhibitor of the toxin, ToxN.
APIS013 Dmd toxin-antitoxin (TA) CLAN027 T4 of E. coli PMID:22403819 T4 produces Dmd, an antitoxin that inhibits E. coli RnlA and LsoA toxins. Dmd differs from the RnlB or LsoB antitoxins, suggesting it evolved independently, which is highlighted by its different toxin neutralization mechanism.
APIS014 PinA toxin-antitoxin (TA) CLAN026 T4 of E. coli PMID:9417110 PinA encoded by T4 was discovered 20 years ago, it could help T4 block TA defense systems that require Lon, but in vivo function for pinA has not been reported.
APIS017 Alt toxin-antitoxin (TA) CLAN024 T4 of E. coli PMID:26395283 T4 protein Alt (an ADP-ribosyltransferase) is injected with phage DNA, which chemically modifies the MazF toxin. ADP-ribosylated MazF has reduced cleavage activity, enabling the survival of the phage.
APIS022 adfA toxin-antitoxin (TA) CLAN025 RB69 of E. coli PMID:35725776 Gene adfA(gp61.2) is encoded as a DarT (TA system) inhibitor.
APIS078 CLAN023 Morganella phage vB_MmoP_MP2
APIS080 CLAN023 Klebsiella phage VLCpiA3d
APIS084 CLAN023 Pectobacterium phage phiPccP-1
APIS086 CLAN022 Escherichia phage vB_EcoM_CE1